Chapter 23: The Respiratory System

This page contains all that you will need to study and link to for the seventh Lecture CT (Chapter Test) #7 Chapter 23.

ONGOING REMINDER: As you go through the semester you will notice that lecture does NOT support lab and the lab material will not support or prepare you for lecture content. Remember that this was the same for the Biology 233 100% online course. The reason: Lecture will usually explain physiology or functions and lab will be on anatomy or the structure or naming of parts.

Don't forget that you will be studying two areas -- Lecture and Lab-- at the same time on the same days (just as students do in the on campus Biology 234 course) throughout the entire semester. Actually that is why this course has two names 1-anatomy & 2-physiology. also, on campus classes meet in two separate rooms: lecture and laboratory.

This page is for lecture only. Laboratory activities for the week are on the laboratory page. Go back into UCompass and click on "Lab This Week" button.

This Lecture page and others throughout the semester will be the source for all that is available to help you learn the concepts and content for the chapter. IT WILL BE DIFFERENT FOR EACH lecture Chapter THROUGHOUT THE COURSE.

DO NOT USE other internet sites. They may have information not relevant to the chapter content you need to learn. Also, I placed source contacts on this one page as the central source to help save you time in linking to related material. However, if you want to waste time searching the Web for information go ahead, but don't say that I did not warn you that it will be a waste of your precious time. Yet, if you have time to waste then go ahead and Google the Web for information.


Chapter 23 ----OVERVIEW

The Respiratory System

• Hemoglobin within RBCs carries most of the oxygen in the bloodstream, and it releases it in response to changes in the oxygen partial pressure in the surrounding plasma. If the PO2 increases, hemoglobin binds oxygen; if the PO2 decreases, hemoglobin releases oxygen. At a given PO2, hemoglobin will release additional oxygen if the pH decreases or the temperature increases.
• Carbon dioxide travels in the bloodstream primarily as carbonic acid, which is created by carbonic anhydrase inside RBCs. Lesser amounts of CO2 are bound to hemoglobin or dissolved in plasma.
• A basic pace of respiration is established by the interplay between respiratory centers in the pons and medulla oblongata. That pace is modified in response to input from chemoreceptors, baroreceptors, and stretch receptors. In general, carbon dioxide levels, rather than oxygen levels, are the primary drivers of respiratory activity. Respiratory activity can also be interrupted by protective reflexes and adjusted by the conscious control of respiratory muscles.

Learning Objectives & Competencies After successfully completing this chapter, you will be able to:
• Describe the primary functions of the respiratory system.
• Explain how the delicate respiratory exchange surfaces are protected from pathogens, debris, and other hazards.
• Identify the organs of the upper respiratory system and describe their functions.
• Describe the structure of the larynx and discuss its role in normal breathing and in the production of sound.
• Discuss the structure of the airways outside the lungs.
• Describe the superficial anatomy of the lungs, the structure of a pulmonary lobule, and the functional anatomy of the alveoli.
• Define and compare the processes of external respiration and internal respiration.
• Describe the major steps involved in external respiration.
• Summarize the physical principles governing the movement of air into the lungs.
• Describe the origins and actions of the respiratory muscles responsible for respiratory movements.
• Summarize the physical principles governing the diffusion of gases into and out of the blood.
• Explain the important structural features of the respiratory membrane.
• Describe the partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in alveolar air, blood, and the systemic circuit.
• Describe how oxygen is picked up, transported, and released in the blood.
• Discuss the structure and function of hemoglobin.
• Describe how carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.
• Describe the factors that influence the respiration rate.
• Identify and discuss reflex respiratory activity and the brain centers involved in the control of respiration.


Instruction & Assignments

Sources of Learning

Internet website "My A & P Place" to companion your hard copy textbook. Chapter Twenty Three
The Respiratory System

Click on the photo (to the left) of the textbook. Next, you will see the same textbook cover on another page. Click it. Enter your name and other information you created when you entered the site to register for Chapter Seventeen. Continue into the text book's website to see their current material. However remember that accessing this link is not necessary for succeeding in this course. I have downloaded all that is relevant to the course and placed them as direct links on this page and all pages when appropriate throughout the course.

I will be linking you back to "My A & P Place" for each textbook chapter during the course.

Read Chapter 23 "The Respiratory System" from your hard copy textbook.

It will help if you take summary notes during your reading of chapter 23.

Major concepts for Chapter 23: "The Respiratory System" (click on image to left). Read these BEFORE starting chapter 23.
"Key Words" list. A collection of terms from the chapter to help your learning and understanding of the chapter and its content. It is useable for reviewing and studying for the chapter test or Lec CT.

Power Point Presentation.  These are designed to the sequence of a chapter's content.  It is another way of organizing, reviewing and learning the content required for this course.  Click on the icon to the left for a list of Power Point slides available for this chapter.  Also incleded are practice tests in a Power Point format.

Learning animations

These are Flash animations (usually) to show visuals of major concepts or mechanisms as you read chapter 23. (click picture on left)

Chapter Outlines & Chapter Overview Notes

These will give you chapter outlines that organize and focus on the core terms, ideas, and concepts for all chapters in the course

On campus Biology 234 Anatomy and Physiology II students DO NOT have access to anything in your course except this link. I am sharing it with you. It contains is a collection of various animations and videos that may or may not help you. If they don't then do not use this link again. This link will be different for every chapter.

Lecture - - Competencies and Tests
Labeling activities (drag and drop tests)
Try this link. I made some practice lecture test questions on this chapter that provide an immediate response to your answer. It is not graded and will not alter your course grade. The questions, though are intended to give you practice for matching test questions you will see on the Lecture CTs and the four major lecture exams. Practice, practice and practice usually is the best teacher and increases your chances of success. Click on the image.

Lecture Chapter Test 7 (Lec CT 7). This will cover your readings of chapter Twenty Three - The Respiratory System. This Lec CT 7 is intended to test and sharpen your knowledge on the subjects in preparation for Lecture Exam 2. Below: click on calender of deadlines, activities and events. Notice the Lec CT 7 due date on the calendar. If the Lec CT 7 is submitted late, 2 points per late minute will be deducted automacically by the UCompass computer from your score. This is a graded but practice test to prepare you for the major lecture exam that covers this chapter as one of its chapters on that first major lecture exam.

To take the quiz: either close out these windows and look for your UCompass logged in window OR go to this link and reenter UCompass. After logging in to or relogging into the Biology 234 UCompass page then click on "Lecture CTs & Exams" button and then click on "Lec CT 7" to start your test. Read and FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS ON THE NEW PAGE.

This chapter will be part of your Lecture Exam #3. Take notice as to the time and date of this final exam.
Set up a personal calendar of when to study and what to study. The Lecture Deadlines (below) has a printable calendar with this semester's schedule in it. There is plenty of space on it to add your own personal goals and deadlines.
Lecture Deadlines
Calender of deadlines, activities and events

The entire semester is here.

Print this page for reference and organization (use Landscape printer setting)