Chapter 27: Fluid, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balance

This page contains all that you will need to study and link to for the eleventh Lecture CT (Chapter Test) #11 Chapter 27.

ONGOING REMINDER: As you go through the semester you will notice that lecture does NOT support lab and the lab material will not support or prepare you for lecture content. Remember that this was the same for the Biology 233 100% online course. The reason: Lecture will usually explain physiology or functions and lab will be on anatomy or the structure or naming of parts.

Don't forget that you will be studying two areas -- Lecture and Lab-- at the same time on the same days (just as students do in the on campus Biology 234 course) throughout the entire semester. Actually that is why this course has two names 1-anatomy & 2-physiology. also, on campus classes meet in two separate rooms: lecture and laboratory.

This page is for lecture only. Laboratory activities for the week are on the laboratory page. Go back into UCompass and click on "Lab This Week" button.

This Lecture page and others throughout the semester will be the source for all that is available to help you learn the concepts and content for the chapter. IT WILL BE DIFFERENT FOR EACH lecture Chapter THROUGHOUT THE COURSE.

DO NOT USE other internet sites. They may have information not relevant to the chapter content you need to learn. Also, I placed source contacts on this one page as the central source to help save you time in linking to related material. However, if you want to waste time searching the Web for information go ahead, but don't say that I did not warn you that it will be a waste of your precious time. Yet, if you have time to waste then go ahead and Google the Web for information.


Chapter 26 ----OVERVIEW

Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid-Base Balance

• Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are interrelated. Small water gains or losses affect electrolyte concentrations only temporarily. The impacts are reduced by fluid shifts between the ECF and ICF and by hormonal responses that adjust the rates of water intake and excretion. Similarly, electrolyte gains or losses produce only temporary changes in solute concentration. These changes are opposed by fluid shifts, adjustments in the rates of ion absorption and secretion, and adjustments to the rates of water gain and loss.
• The most common and acute acid-base disorders is respiratory acidosis, which develops when respiratory activity cannot keep pace with the rate of carbon dioxide generation in peripheral tissues.

Learning Objectives & Competencies After successfully completing this chapter, you will be able to:
• Explain what is meant by the terms fluid balance, electrolyte balance, and acid–base balance and discuss their importance for homeostasis.
• Compare the composition of intracellular and extracellular fluids.
• Explain the basic concepts involved in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes.
• Identify the hormones that play important roles in regulating fluid balance and electrolyte balance and describe their effects.
• Describe the movement of fluid within the ECF, between the ECF and the ICF, and between the ECF and the environment.
• Discuss the mechanisms by which sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ion concentrations are regulated to maintain electrolyte balance.
• Explain the buffering systems that balance the pH of the intracellular and extracellular fluids.
• Describe the compensatory mechanisms involved in the maintenance of acid–base balance.
• Identify the most frequent threats to acid–base balance.
• Explain how the body responds when the pH of body fluids varies outside normal limits.
• Describe the effects of aging on fluid, electrolyte, and acid–base balance.


Instruction & Assignments

Sources of Learning

Internet website "My A & P Place" to companion your hard copy textbook. Chapter Twenty Seven
Fluids, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balance

Click on the photo (to the left) of the textbook. Next, you will see the same textbook cover on another page. Click it. Enter your name and other information you created when you entered the site to register for Chapter Seventeen. Continue into the text book's website to see their current material. However remember that accessing this link is not necessary for succeeding in this course. I have downloaded all that is relevant to the course and placed them as direct links on this page and all pages when appropriate throughout the course.

I will be linking you back to "My A & P Place" for each textbook chapter during the course.

Read Chapter 27 "Fluids, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balance" from your hard copy textbook.

It will help if you take summary notes during your reading of chapter 27.

Major concepts for Chapter 27: "Fluids, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balance" (click on image to left). Read these BEFORE starting chapter 27.
"Key Words" list. A collection of terms from the chapter to help your learning and understanding of the chapter and its content. It is useable for reviewing and studying for the chapter test or Lec CT.

Power Point Presentation.  These are designed to the sequence of a chapter's content.  It is another way of organizing, reviewing and learning the content required for this course.  Click on the icon to the left for a list of Power Point slides available for this chapter.  Also incleded are practice tests in a Power Point format.

Learning animations

There are NO Learning animations for this chapter.

Chapter Outlines & Chapter Overview Notes

These will give you chapter outlines that organize and focus on the core terms, ideas, and concepts for all chapters in the course

On campus Biology 234 Anatomy and Physiology II students DO NOT have access to anything in your course except this link. I am sharing it with you. It contains is a collection of various animations and videos that may or may not help you. If they don't then do not use this link again. This link will be different for every chapter.

Lecture - - Competencies and Tests
Labeling activities (drag and drop tests)
Try this link. I made some practice lecture test questions on this chapter that provide an immediate response to your answer. It is not graded and will not alter your course grade. The questions, though are intended to give you practice for matching test questions you will see on the Lecture CTs and the four major lecture exams. Practice, practice and practice usually is the best teacher and increases your chances of success. Click on the image.

Lecture Chapter Test 11 (Lec CT 11). This will cover your readings of chapter Twenty Seven - Fluids, Electrolytes and Acid-Base Balance. This Lec CT 11 is intended to test and sharpen your knowledge on the subjects in preparation for Lecture Exam 4. Below: click on calender of deadlines, activities and events. Notice the Lec CT 11 due date on the calendar. If the Lec CT 11 is submitted late, 2 points per late minute will be deducted automacically by the UCompass computer from your score. This is a graded but practice test to prepare you for the major lecture exam that covers this chapter as one of its chapters on that first major lecture exam.

To take the quiz: either close out these windows and look for your UCompass logged in window OR go to this link and reenter UCompass. After logging in to or relogging into the Biology 234 UCompass page then click on "Lecture CTs & Exams" button and then click on "Lec CT 11" to start your test. Read and FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS ON THE NEW PAGE.

This chapter will be part of your Lecture Exam #4. Take notice as to the time and date of this final exam.
Set up a personal calendar of when to study and what to study. The Lecture Deadlines (below) has a printable calendar with this semester's schedule in it. There is plenty of space on it to add your own personal goals and deadlines.
Lecture Deadlines
Calender of deadlines, activities and events

The entire semester is here.

Print this page for reference and organization (use Landscape printer setting)